Harrapa is today a large village in the Sahiwal District of Punjab, 15 miles southwest of the district town. Archaeologists think that ancient Harappa was the urban center dominating the upper Indus region, much like Mohenjo-daro dominated the lower Indus Valley and Ganweriwala might have been the urban center for what is now Rajasthan. The site at Harappa was first briefly excavated by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1872-73, two decades after brick robbers carried off the visible remains of the city. He found an Indus seal of unknown origin.
The first extensive excavations at Harappa were started by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920. His work and contemporaneous excavations at Mohenjo-daro first brought to the world's attention the existence of the forgotten Indus Valley civilization as the earliest urban culture in the Indian subcontinent. His work was followed later in the decade by that of Madho Sarup Vats, also of the Archaeological Survey of India. Excavations by other archaeologists continued in the 1930's, and in 1946 Sir Mortimer Wheeler excavated the so-called fortification walls and found the first pre-Indus Valley civilization (Kot Dijian) deposits. After independence in 1947 and coming in District Sahiwal of Province of Punjab, Pakistan, Harappa was excavated by Mohammed Rafique Mughal of the Archaeological Survey of Pakistan in 1966.
The traditional crafts of district Sahiwal include baskets and mats. The baskets are made from sticks of Mulberry trees, which are found in abundance in the forest located at Chichawatni. The baskets are used for packing of fruit and vegetables. The mats are made from naturally grown grass. These crafts are mainly concentrated in Chichawatni and its suburbs. Approximately, 400 artisans are engaged in these crafts. Apart from baskets and mats, there are a number of handlooms installed in Sahiwal for the manufacture of school tats from jute and about 500 persons are engaged in this trade.
Its main crops are wheat, cotton, sugarcane, maize and rice. Main fruits are citrus, mangoes and guava. Sahiwal is a green and fertile town with 11,522 acres under naturally grown forests.
Sahiwal Dairy Cattle Breed
The Sahiwal breed is the best dairy breed of zebu or humped cattle (Bos indicus), followed by the very similar Red Sindhi and Butana breeds. It originated in the dry Punjab region which lies along the Indian-Pakistani border. They were once kept in large herds by professional herdsmen called "Junglies". However, with the introduction of irrigation to the region they began to be kept in smaller numbers by the farmers of the region, who used them as draft and dairy animals.The Sahiwal is one of the best dairy breeds in India and Pakistan. It is tick-resistant, heat-tolerant and noted for its high resistance to parasites, both internal and external.
Sahiwal District Jail
The Sahiwal District Jail is one of the ancient jails in Punjab. It was depicted in one of the famous Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) drama "Jangloos". A famous Urdu poet Faiz Ahmad Faiz wrote a major part of his poetry while he was in Sahiwal Jail as a political prisoner.
Nobel Prize Winner
This district has the honour that Pakistan's only Nobel Prize winner was born in this district. The only Pakistani Nobel laureate, Dr. Abdus Salam, was born in District Sahiwal, according to his elder sister. He was brought up in Jhang, therefore it is erroneously assumed that he was also born there. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his achievements in the field of Theoretical Physics in 1979. He is buried at Rabwah city of Jhang district.
One of the founding forefathers of modern Urdu, Majeed Amjad, was born in Sahiwal and got his education from Govt. College Lahore. He was inspired by the greenery of Sahiwal and wrote about the trees.
It is famous for its cotton ginning & pressing, tannery, textile spinning, textile weaving, leather products, garments, pharmaceuticals, flour mills, food industry, oil mills, tobacco, vegetable ghee/cooking oil, biscuit plants, chip board, confectionery, and woolen textile spinning/weaving, etc. Its garments are especially famous all over the world due to their unique eastern designs. The Biscuit industry also popular.